Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • penile pain
  • band of retracted foreskin tissue beneath the glans
  • swollen glans penis
  • indwelling catheter

Other diagnostic factors

  • erythema
  • black tissue on the glans
  • non-pliable glans penis
  • inability to urinate freely

Risk factors

  • lack of circumcision
  • urinary catheterisation
  • dependence on a carer for daily hygiene
  • tight foreskin
  • phimosis
  • poor hygiene
  • bacterial infection
  • parasitic infections
  • lichen sclerosis
  • diabetes
  • penile piercing
  • haemangiomas of the penis
  • peripheral vascular disease
  • inadequate circumcision

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Ranjiv Mathews

Associate Professor

Pediatric Urology

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

RM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Urologic Surgery

Division of Pediatric Urology

Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt

Nashville

TN

Disclosures

JT declares that he has no competing interests.

Lecturer in Uro-oncology and Consultant Urological Surgeon

Department of Urology

Addenbrooke's Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

VG declares that he has no competing interests.

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