Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • high fever
  • exanthem

Other diagnostic factors

  • diarrhoea
  • Nagayama's spots
  • tympanic membrane inflammation
  • upper respiratory symptoms
  • seizures
  • peri-orbital oedema
  • bulging anterior fontanelle
  • cervical, occipital, or post-auricular lymphadenopathy

Risk factors

  • age under 2 years
  • immunosuppression

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • viral culture
  • antibody detection
Full details

Emerging tests

  • PCR
  • immunohistochemistry
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Pediatrics and Family Medicine

University of Connecticut Medical Center and Connecticut Children’s Medical Center

Farmington

CT

Disclosures

HMF declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Pharmacy

Department of Pediatrics

University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Hartford

CT

Disclosures

NB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Henry M. Feder and Dr Nicholas Bennett would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr James Azim, Dr Margie C. Andreae, Dr Jon Dyer, and Dr Jennifer Holman, the previous contributors to this monograph. JA, MCA, JD, and JH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant Paediatrician

Heartlands Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

HG declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Division of Infectious Diseases

University of Rochester Medical Center

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

MTC declares that she has no competing interests.

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