Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: August  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • stridor
  • onset within 2 weeks of birth
  • features of airway obstruction
  • resolution of symptoms by 2 years of age
  • normal cry

Other diagnostic factors

  • feeding difficulties
  • weight loss or failure to thrive
  • hypotonia
  • dysmorphic features

Risk factors

  • GORD
  • neurological abnormalities
  • laryngeal anatomical abnormalities
  • male gender
  • genetic syndromic disorder

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • rigid laryngobronchoscopy
  • FEES testing
  • polysomnography
  • CXR
  • lateral neck radiograph
  • ECG
  • echocardiogram
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Paediatric Otolaryngologist

The Children's Hospital at Westmead

Sydney

Australia

Disclosures

SJB declares that she has no competing interests.

Honorary Consultant Paediatric Otolaryngologist

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

CMB is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Pediatric Otolaryngology-HNS

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

KP declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Paediatric Otolaryngologist

Royal Hospital for Sick Children (Yorkhill)

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

HK declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Associate Residency Program Director

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Little Rock

AR

Disclosures

GR declares that he has no competing interests.

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