Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • bowel sounds in chest

Other diagnostic factors

  • heartburn
  • regurgitation
  • obesity
  • chest pain
  • dysphagia
  • odynophagia
  • haematemesis
  • shortness of breath
  • cough
  • oropharyngitis
  • wheezing
  • non-bilious vomiting
  • fever and chills
  • confusion

Risk factors

  • obesity
  • previous gastro-oesophageal procedure
  • elevated intra-abdominal pressure
  • male gender
  • structural abnormalities of the oesophageal hiatus or the phreno-oesophageal ligaments
  • incisional, umbilical, or inguinal hernia
  • disorder of collagen metabolism
  • advanced age

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • OGD
  • CT scan or MRI scan
  • oesophageal manometry and pH monitoring
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Constantine T. Frantzides

Director

Chicago Institute of Minimally Invasive Surgery

Director of Minimally Invasive Surgery and Bariatric Fellowship Program

St. Francis Hospital

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

CTF declares that he has no competing interests.

Minh B. Luu

Surgery Residency Associate Director

Associate Professor

Rush University Medical Center

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

MBL declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Constantine T. Frantzides and Dr Minh B. Luu would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Mark A. Carlson, a previous contributor to this monograph. MAC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery

University Hospital Tuebingen

Germany

Disclosures

FAG declares that he has no competing interests.

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