Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • FHx of breast cancer

Other diagnostic factors

  • nipple discharge
  • breast lump
  • eczema-like rash on breast
  • ulceration

Risk factors

  • FHx of breast cancer
  • benign breast disease on prior biopsy
  • older age at menopause
  • older age at first full-term pregnancy
  • nulliparity
  • low physical activity
  • high vitamin A intake
  • hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Cowden's syndrome
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • ataxia telangiectasia
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • biopsy (fine-needle or core)
  • stereotactic biopsy
  • sentinel node biopsy
  • ultrasound-guided biopsy
  • MRI
  • ultrasonography
  • hormone receptor testing
  • genetic testing for BRCA
Full details

Emerging tests

  • nipple aspirate fluid
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Edward R. Sauter

Director of Breast Surgery

Hartford Healthcare

Hartford

CT

Disclosures

ERS is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Dr Edward R. Sauter would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rachel L. Ruhlen, a previous contributor to this monograph. RLR declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Radiologist

Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre

Nijmegen

The Netherlands

Disclosures

CB is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Assistant in the Division of Medical Oncology

European Institute of Oncology

Milan

Italy

Disclosures

AB declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor in Epidemiology and Medical Oncology

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

KV declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant Surgeon and Honorary Senior Lecturer

Edinburgh Breast Unit

Western General Hospital

Edinburgh

UK

Disclosures

GTN is a principal investigator for the IBIS-II trial, and is an author of a guideline cited in this monograph.

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