Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • levodopa-unresponsive gait apraxia

Other diagnostic factors

  • cognitive impairment
  • urinary frequency, urgency, or incontinence
  • faecal incontinence

Risk factors

  • age >65 years
  • vascular disease
  • diabetes mellitus

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CT head (non-contrast)
  • MRI head
  • levodopa challenge
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • lumbar puncture
  • lumbar puncture with large-volume CSF tap
  • prolonged external lumbar drainage
  • CSF infusion procedure
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Richard Adam Grünewald

Consultant Neurologist

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

RAG declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Richard Grünewald would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Rowe, a previous contributor to this monograph. Not disclosed.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Director

Adult Hydrocephalus Center

Sandra and Malcolm Berman Brain & Spine Institute

Sinai Hospital

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

RW declares that she has no competing interests.

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