Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis
  • Meniere's disease
  • Thiamine deficiency
  • Ototoxic vestibulopathy
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (canalithiasis)
  • Haemorrhagic stroke
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration
  • Vestibular migraine
  • Idiopathic Parkinson's disease
  • Peripheral neuropathy

Uncommon

  • Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma)
  • Sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis
  • Idiopathic bilateral vestibular hypofunction
  • Congenital bilateral vestibular hypofunction
  • Degenerative (age-related) inner ear disease
  • Autoimmune inner ear disease
  • Superior canal dehiscence (SCD)
  • Meningitis
  • Mal de debarquement syndrome
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Cerebellitis/brainstem encephalitis
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy
  • Posterior fossa tumour
  • Chiari malformation
  • Central pontine myelinosis
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome
  • Vitamin E deficiency
  • Coeliac disease
  • Primary cerebellar degeneration
  • Secondary parkinsonism
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Corticobasal degeneration
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA; striatonigral degeneration, Shy-Drager syndrome)
  • Spinal cord trauma
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), polyradiculopathy
  • Spinal spondylosis
  • Spinal cord tumour
  • Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)
  • Subacute combined degeneration of the cord
  • Syphilis, tabes dorsalis
  • TB (Pott's disease)
  • HIV infectious myelopathy
  • Human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 infectious myelopathy
  • SLE inflammatory myelopathy
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Drug toxicity

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Adrian Priesol

Instructor in Otology and Laryngology

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

AP declares that he has no competing interests.

Nurhan Torun

Assistant Professor in Ophthalmology

Director of Neuro-ophthalmology

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

NT declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor and Vice-Chairman

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Director

Dizziness and Balance Center

Washington University School of Medicine

Saint Louis

MO

Disclosures

JAG has been reimbursed for conference speaking and clinical research support by NeuroCom Intl, Inc. and for conference speaking by MicroMedical Technologies, Inc.

Associate Professor

Department of Otolaryngology

University of Colorado

Aurora

CO

Disclosures

SPC is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Instructor in Neurology

Department of Neurology

Massachusetts General Hospital

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DJC declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Senior Lecturer & Consultant in Audiovestibular Medicine

UCL Ear Institute

UCL

London

UK

Disclosures

DB declares that she has no competing interests.

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