Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • grinding noises
  • oral parafunctions
  • tooth wear
  • jaw muscle pain
  • jaw muscle tenderness
  • stress and anxiety
  • caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol use
  • hx of sleep disorders
  • selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor or dopamine antagonist use
  • ecstasy or cocaine use
  • muscle hypertrophy

Other diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • tooth hypersensitivity
  • fracture of dental restorations
  • oral mucosal changes
  • record of bruxism events and associated behaviour
  • oral appliance wear

Risk factors

  • smoking, caffeine, alcohol consumption
  • stress sensitivity and anxiety personality traits
  • snoring, sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders
  • medication use
  • genetic disposition

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • polysomnographic (PSG) study
  • electromyography (EMG)
  • smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor, Chair, and Vice Dean

Department of Oral Health Sciences

Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)

MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam

University of Amsterdam

VU University Amsterdam

Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Disclosures

FL is a member of the Academic Advisory Board of Sunstar Suisse S.A for GrindCare®. FL receives research funding from Sunstar Suisse S.A and SomnoMed. FL is an author of several references cited in this topic.

Associate Professor School of Dentistry

Department of Neuroscience

University of Padova

Padova

Italy

Disclosures

DM is an author of several references cited in this topic.

Adjunct Professor

School of Dentistry

Department of Neuroscience

University of Padua

Padua

Italy

Disclosures

AB is the inventor of and owns the copyright for the software BruxApp. AB is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Professor Daniele Manfredini, Professor Frank Lobbezoo, and Alessandro Bracci would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Peter Svensson, a previous contributor to this topic. PS is chairman of the clinical advisory board and has received fees for consulting for Medotech, the manufacturer of GrindCare. PS is also an author of several references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Dean and Professor

Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences

Kansas City

MO

Disclosures

AG is a member of the clinical advisory board of Medotech and has received GrindCare devices for evaluation. AG is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

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