Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • anticipatory anxiety
  • behavioural avoidance

Other diagnostic factors

  • onset during childhood
  • onset during early adulthood
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • disgust
  • fainting
  • tachycardia
  • hyperventilation
  • exaggerated startle
  • sleep disruption

Risk factors

  • aversive experiences
  • stress and negative life events
  • anxiety disorders
  • mood disorders
  • substance use disorders
  • first-degree relative with phobia
  • twin with phobia
  • female sex
  • white ethnicity
  • parental anxiety and overprotectiveness
  • negative affectivity and behavioural inhibition
  • cognitive/attentional bias

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • self-report
  • behavioural observation and approach tests
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • structured/semi-structured clinical interview
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at CUMC

Columbia University Clinic for Anxiety and Related Disorders

Columbia University Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

EKF declares that she has no competing interests.

Instructor of Medical Psychology in Psychiatry

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Columbia University Clinic for Anxiety and Related Disorders

Columbia University Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

EBZ declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Eve Friedl and Dr E. Blake Zakarin would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Craig N. Sawchuk and Dr Bunmi O. Olatunji, previous contributors to this monograph. CNS is a co-author of one reference cited in this monograph. BOO is a co-author of one reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Clinical Training Program

Department of Psychology

University of Arkansas

Fayetteville

AR

Disclosures

JML declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Institute of Living

Yale University

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

DFT declares that he has no competing interests.

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