Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • winter season
  • current influenza outbreak
  • unvaccinated
  • fever with cough
  • age 65 years or older
  • chronic cardiovascular or respiratory conditions
  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetes
  • carers and household contacts of high-risk groups
  • healthcare workers
  • haemoglobinopathy
  • immunocompromise
  • pregnancy

Other diagnostic factors

  • age 6 to 59 months
  • sore throat
  • cervical lymphadenopathy
  • dyspnoea

Risk factors

  • age 65 years or older
  • age 6 to 59 months
  • chronic cardiovascular or respiratory conditions
  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetes
  • haemoglobinopathy
  • immunocompromise
  • pregnancy
  • carers and household contacts of high-risk groups
  • healthcare workers

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • viral culture
  • direct immunofluorescent antibody staining
  • reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
  • serology
  • enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
  • rapid diagnostic tests
  • chest x-ray
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Staff Physician

Department of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

CR declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Medical Director of Infection Control

Infectious Disease

Department of Medicine

SUNY Upstate Medical University

Syracuse

NY

Disclosures

WJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

New York

NY

Disclosures

RLM declares that she has no competing interests.

Chief

SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine

Division Allergy and Immunology

Buffalo

NY

Disclosures

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care

Ghent University

Ghent

Belgium

Disclosures

ADS declares that she has no competing interests.

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