Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • audible pop
  • rapid knee swelling
  • inability to return to activity
  • sensation of knee instability or buckling
  • pain
  • positive Lachman's test
  • positive pivot shift manoeuvre

Other diagnostic factors

  • tenderness at lateral femoral condyle, lateral tibial plateau
  • positive anterior drawer test

Risk factors

  • acute trauma
  • female sex (after puberty)
  • poor technique for landings
  • history of previous ACL injury
  • aggressive athlete with higher skill level
  • use of cleats or spikes
  • rough or uneven playing surface
  • ground condition/weather
  • fatigue
  • adolescent, young adults, and middle-aged athletes

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Philip H. Cohen

Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Piscataway

NJ

Disclosures

PHC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

University of Kentucky School of Medicine

President and Chief Executive Officer

American Board of Family Medicine

Lexington

KY

Disclosures

JCP declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Seoul Veterans Hospital

Seoul

South Korea

Disclosures

JRY declares that she has no competing interests.

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