Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • burning sensation
  • itching sensation
  • foreign body sensation
  • crusting of eyelids
  • dry eye
  • lid erythema, telangiectasias
  • collarettes around lashes
  • capped meibomian glands
  • conjunctival hyperaemia
  • unstable tear film with rapid tear break-up time

Other diagnostic factors

  • chalazion
  • scalp changes
  • photophobia
  • facial telangiectasias, erythema, pustules, papules
  • depigmentation of lashes
  • trichiasis
  • madarosis
  • lid margin thickening, notching, and ulceration
  • corneal changes
  • decreased vision

Risk factors

  • age ≥50 years
  • female
  • dermatological disease
  • intraocular or lid surgery/injury

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • lid biopsy
  • lid margin culture
  • microscopic evaluation of epilated eyelashes
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary

New York

NY

Disclosures

EW declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor Elaine Wu would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Esen Akpek, a previous contributor to this topic. EA declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon

King's College Hospital

Honorary Research Fellow

Institute of Ophthalmology

London

UK

Disclosures

GG declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute

Miami

FL

Disclosures

LS declares that she has no competing interests.

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