Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • oral ulcers
  • afebrile
  • absence of genital or ocular ulceration
  • no history of immunodeficiency
  • absence of pallor

Risk factors

  • positive family history
  • non-smoker or cessation of smoking
  • trauma
  • age <30 years
  • Streptococcus sanguis infection
  • cows' milk-fed children
  • female gender
  • white ethnicity
  • higher socioeconomic status
  • high stress levels
  • food intolerance
  • hormonal imbalance
  • use of SLS-containing toothpaste

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • FBC
  • serum ferritin
  • serum folate
  • serum vitamin B12
  • serum IgA-tTG
  • viral serology (e.g., HIV or EBV)
  • ESR and CRP
  • biopsy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

We would like to gratefully acknowledge the late Dr Crispian Scully for his contribution to this monograph.

Disclosures

Not received

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

The Milton J. Dance Head and Neck Center

Greater Baltimore Medical Center

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

JJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant in Oral Medicine

Glasgow Dental Hospital and School

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

DF declares that he has no competing interests.

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