Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: June  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • hx of current systemic disease
  • hx of vasoactive medication or drug use
  • prolonged erection of >4 hours' duration
  • painful rigid penis
  • penis not fully rigid and not painful
  • hx of perineal or genitourinary trauma

Risk factors

  • haemoglobinopathy
  • vasoactive drugs
  • perineal or penile trauma
  • malignancies or local infection
  • spinal cord disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • corpus cavernosum blood sampling
  • FBC and differential
  • Hb-solubility testing
  • medication/toxicology urine screen
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • colour duplex ultrasonography
  • ultrasound
  • penile arteriography
  • Hb electrophoresis
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Helen R. Levey

Urology Resident

Department of Urology

University of Rochester Medical Center

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

HRL declares that she has no competing interests.

Trinity Bivalacqua

Assistant Professor of Urology and Oncology

The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

TB is an author of several references cited in this monograph.

Professor of Urology

Director of the Sexual and Reproductive Medicine Fellowship

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

JM declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Helen Levey, Dr Trinity Bivalacqua, and Dr John Mulhall would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Onder Canguven and Dr Arthur L. Burnett, the previous contributors to this monograph. ALB has been reimbursed by Pfizer Inc. and Lilly LLC for attending symposia, speaking, organizing education, and consulting, and has received research grants that support laboratory staff. OC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Urology

Department of Urology

Tulane University Health Sciences Center

New Orleans

LA

Disclosures

WH declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Division of Pediatric Urology

University of Utah

Primary Children's Medical Center

Salt Lake City

UT

Disclosures

SO declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Section Head of Minimally Invasive Surgery

The University of Texas Medical Branch

Galveston

TX

Disclosures

GR declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Center for Male Fertility

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

ES declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Urology

Division of Andrology

Department of Urology

Faculty of Medicine

Istanbul University

Istanbul

Turkey

Disclosures

AK declares that he has no competing interests.

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