Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • subjective decrease in vision
  • blurred or cloudy vision
  • glare
  • washed-out colour vision
  • reduced visual acuity
  • defects in the red reflex

Other diagnostic factors

  • inadequate glasses prescription
  • disruption in activities of daily living

Risk factors

  • age >65 years
  • smoking
  • long-term UV exposure
  • diabetes mellitus
  • other metabolic or hereditary conditions
  • eye trauma
  • long-term ocular corticosteroid use
  • FHx of congenital cataract or congenital influences (e.g., toxins)
  • uveitis

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • dilated fundus examination
  • measurement of intra-ocular pressure
  • glare vision test
  • slit lamp examination of the anterior chamber
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • assessment of best visual potential
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Byers Eye Institute

Stanford University School of Medicine

Stanford

CA

Disclosures

RTC declares that he has received consultancy fees from Alcon, makers of cataract surgery equipment, but has no contractual agreement.

Dr Robert T. Chang would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Creig Hoyt, Dr Leela V. Raju, and Dr M. Bowes Hamill, previous contributors to this monograph. CH, LVR, and MBH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Cornea External Disease and Refractive Surgery Local Director

Long Island College Hospital Eye Center

Brooklyn

NY

Disclosures

MPE declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer/Consultant in Ophthalmology

University of Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

PH declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Ophthalmology

University of New Mexico Medical School

Albuquerque

NM

Disclosures

BA declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer