Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • heartburn
  • regurgitation
  • dysphagia

Other diagnostic factors

  • chest pain
  • laryngitis
  • cough
  • Dyspnoea or wheezing
  • history of aspiration pneumonia

Risk factors

  • acid/bile reflux or GORD
  • increased age
  • white ethnicity
  • male sex
  • family history of Barrett's oesophagus or oesophageal adenocarcinoma
  • obesity
  • smoking

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • upper GI endoscopy with biopsy
  • Barium oesophagogram
Full details

Emerging tests

  • chromoendoscopy
  • autofluorescence imaging
  • confocal laser endomicroscopy
  • optical coherence tomography
  • spectroscopy
  • transnasal endoscopy
  • capsule endoscopy
  • gelatin-coated sponge
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Medical Director of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Division of Gastroenterology

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

El Paso

TX

Disclosures

AFC is a scientific advisor for Intercept Pharmaceuticals and Gilead Sciences, and is on the speaker bureau for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Merck, and Alexion.

Professor of Medicine

Chief

Division of Gastroenterology

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

El Paso

TX

Disclosures

MJZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Andres F. Carrion and Dr Marc J. Zuckerman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Vic Velanovich, the previous contributor to this monograph. VV is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Medicine Chief

Department of Gastroenterology

University of Arizona College of Medicine

Tucson

AZ

Disclosures

RES declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Reader in Surgery

Nuffield Department of Surgery

University of Oxford

Oxford

UK

Disclosures

PM declares that he has no competing interests.

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