Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Sepsis and systemic inflammatory-response syndrome (SIRS)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Pneumonia
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Pulmonary oedema
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Haemorrhagic stroke
  • Salicylate overdose
  • Pseudorespiratory alkalosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Asthma in adults
  • Asthma in children
  • Hypoxaemia
  • Cirrhosis
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass

Uncommon

  • Pneumothorax
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain tumour
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • High altitude-related illness
  • Generalised anxiety disorder
  • Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
  • Central sleep apnoea
  • Hypovolaemic shock
  • Severe anaemia
  • Lung contusion
  • Central neurogenic hyperventilation
  • Hyperventilation syndrome
  • Hyperthermic hyperpnoea
  • Cyanotic heart disease
  • Haemoglobinopathy
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Fulminant hepatic failure
  • Hepatopulmonary syndrome
  • Portopulmonary hypertension
  • Nicotine, xanthines, catecholamines, analeptics, progestational agents
  • Situational anxiety

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

University of California

Irvine

CA

Disclosures

CSS is a member of the editorial board of American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine and Chest Journal without compensation. CSS received a travel fee from Medtronix for attending a conference. CSS is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Associate Professor of Medicine

Staff Physician: Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Tibor Rubin VA Medical Center

University of California, Irvine

Long Beach

CA

Disclosures

AQ declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Catherine S. Sassoon and Dr Asad Qasim would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Wilson Yan, Dr Jeremy Murdock, and Dr Sterling L. Malish, previous contributors to this topic. WY, JM, and SLM declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care

King Hussein Cancer Center

Amman

Jordan

Disclosures

FH declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor and Head

Department of Anesthesia

Galway University Hospitals

Galway

Ireland

Disclosures

JGL is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

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