Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Current diuretic therapy
  • Gastric secretion loss
  • Post-diuretic therapy
  • Post-hypercapnia
  • Bicarbonate administration
  • Milk-alkali syndrome

Uncommon

  • Primary hyperaldosteronism
  • Secondary hyperaldosteronism
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Liquorice ingestion
  • Tobacco chewing
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess
  • Liddle's syndrome
  • Bartter's syndrome
  • Gitelman's syndrome
  • Profound potassium depletion
  • Hypercalcaemia of non-hyperparathyroid aetiology
  • Post-starvation refeeding syndrome
  • Transfusion of blood products (sodium citrate)
  • Villous adenoma
  • Chloride diarrhoea
  • Cystic fibrosis

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Dinkar Kaw

Professor of Medicine

Division of Nephrology

Department of Medicine

University of Toledo College of Medicine

Toledo

OH

Disclosures

DK declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Dinkar Kaw would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Joseph I. Shapiro, a previous co-contributor to this monograph. JIS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

School of Exercise

Biomedical and Health Science

Edith Cowan University

Western Australia

Disclosures

CA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

The University of Maryland

Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

MICU Director

Baltimore VA Medical Center

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

MC declares that he has no competing interests.

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