Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • exposure and response to trauma
  • intrusion symptoms
  • avoidance symptoms
  • negative alterations in cognitions and mood
  • alterations in arousal and reactivity

Other diagnostic factors

  • depression
  • alcohol or substance misuse
  • anxiety

Risk factors

  • serious accident
  • witness of school violence or domestic violence
  • natural disaster
  • terrorist attack
  • torture
  • combat exposure
  • traumatic brain injury
  • sudden death of loved one
  • molestation
  • rape
  • victimisation by attacker
  • previous trauma
  • multiple major life stressors
  • low social support
  • hx of mental disorder
  • hx of drug and alcohol abuse
  • female sex
  • younger age

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • PTSD Checklist
  • PCL-5
  • Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R)
  • Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS)
  • Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ)
  • SPAN
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)
  • Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5)
  • Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID PTSD Module)
  • PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview Version (PSS-I)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Psychiatric Epidemiology

Centre for Academic Mental Health

School of Social and Community Medicine

University of Bristol

Bristol

Clinical Senior Lecturer & Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist

Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences

Cardiff University

Cardiff

UK

Disclosures

SZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Lecturer

Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences

School of Medicine

Cardiff University

Cardiff

Wales

Disclosures

MH is an author of references cited in this monograph.

Research Associate

National Centre for Mental Health

Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences

School of Medicine

Cardiff University

Cardiff

Wales

Disclosures

CL declares that she has no competing interests.

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Neil P. Roberts, Dr Jonathan I. Bisson, and Dr Steve Wood, previous contributors to this monograph. NPR is a member of the research team that developed a web-based guided self-help programme to treat PTSD. NPR has also received grant funding for research related to PTSD and undertaken systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, and other research in the traumatic stress field that may be referred to in this work. JIB and SW declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Deputy Associate Chief of Staff

Mental Health

VA New York Harbor Healthcare System

Clinical Associate Professor

New York University School of Medicine

New York

NY

Disclosures

MR declares that he has no competing interests.

Surgeon Commander

Royal Navy

Defence Professor of Mental Health, Visiting Professor of Psychiatry, and Co-Director

Academic Centre for Defence Mental Health

King's College London

London

UK

Disclosures

NG has been principal investigator on studies with research funding greater than 6 figures USD. NG is a director of a company providing early intervention training for traumatic stress (the company does not provide PTSD treatment services).

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