Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • cough
  • wheezing
  • fluctuating clinical findings

Other diagnostic factors

  • rhinitis
  • grunting, nasal flaring, and retractions
  • tachypnoea
  • fever <40°C (<104°F)
  • apnoea

Risk factors

  • infants <3 years
  • November to May
  • prematurity or bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • passive tobacco smoke exposure
  • impaired airway clearance and function
  • congenital heart disease
  • immunodeficiency

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • ELISA rapid antigen detection
  • chest x-ray
  • reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
Full details

Emerging tests

  • infant pulmonary function tests (IPFTs)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Consultant

KTP-National University Children's Medical Institute

National University Health System

Singapore

Disclosures

IDL declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Resident

KTP-National University Children's Medical Institute

National University Health System

Singapore

Disclosures

WLS declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Isaac Desheng Liu and Dr Woon Li Seo would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jennifer L. Nayak , Dr Caroline B. Hall, and Dr Clement L. Ren, previous contributors to this monograph. JLN and CLR declare that they have no competing interests. CBH is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Pediatrics

Women and Children's Hospital

Buffalo

NY

Disclosures

RW declares that he has no competing interests.

Wyeth Research Scholar Professor and Chair

Department of Pediatrics

WVU School of Medicine

Physician-in-Chief

WVU Children's Hospital

Morgantown

WV

Disclosures

GP declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics

Infectious Disease

Department of Pediatrics

Tufts-New England Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

HCM is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Associate Professor

Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

HP has served as a consultant for MedImmune and is also on their speaker's bureau. He has been paid for attending conferences and for giving talks on bronchiolitis in children. He is a contributing author on the American Thoracic Society's Statement on the Care of the Child with Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy and is the author of a review on therapy for bronchiolitis in children, both cited in this monograph.

Professor of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine

University of Bristol

Bristol

UK

Disclosures

JH declares that he has no competing interests.

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