Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • mass
  • upper/lower gastrointestinal bleed
  • neuropathic pain
  • rash
  • purplish macular-papular lesions
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  • increased abdominal girth
  • hx of HIV infection
  • features of acute abdomen

Other diagnostic factors

  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • anorexia
  • abdominal bloating, discomfort, pain
  • unilateral extremity swelling

Risk factors

  • genetically inherited syndromes
  • radiation
  • human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection
  • congenital disorders
  • lymphoedema
  • hx of exposure to chemical carcinogens

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CT scan of primary tumour
  • MRI of primary tumour
  • CT scan chest
  • HIV test
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • ultrasound of primary tumour
  • chest x-ray
  • positive emission tomography scan
  • endoscopy
  • biopsy for histology
  • FBC
  • urea
  • creatinine
  • LFTs
  • echocardiogram or multi-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan
  • genetic testing
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

JSH declares that he has no competing interests.

Fellow

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

SS declares that she has no competing interests.

Director

Sarcoma Oncology Center

Santa Monica

CA

Disclosures

SPC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Swati Sikaria, Dr James S. Hu, and Dr Sant P. Chawla would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jonathan C. Trent, Dr Saira Hassan, and Dr David Thomas, previous contributors to this monograph. JCT and SH each declare that they have no competing interests. DT has received research support from Pfizer, Amgen, and Novartis.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Department of Surgical Sciences

Professor and Chairman

ENT Clinic

University of Udine

Udine

Italy

Disclosures

AF declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Musculoskeletal Pathology

Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science

University College London

Stanmore

UK

Disclosures

AF declares that she has no competing interests.

Medical Oncologist

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

RM declares that he has no competing interests.

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