Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • polyuria
  • polydipsia

Other diagnostic factors

  • young age
  • weight loss
  • blurred vision
  • nausea and vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • tachypnoea
  • lethargy
  • coma

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition
  • geographic region
  • infectious agents
  • dietary factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • random plasma glucose
  • fasting plasma glucose
  • 2-hour plasma glucose
  • plasma or urine ketones
  • A1C (glycosylated haemoglobin)
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • fasting C-peptide
  • autoimmune markers
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Varsha Vimalananda

Assistant Professor

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management

Boston University School of Medicine

Boston

Core Investigator

Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research

Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Medical Center

Bedford

MA

Disclosures

VV declares that she has no competing interests.

Rajesh K. Garg

Associate Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Boston

MA

Disclosures

RKG is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph, and his institution has received a research grant from AstraZeneca.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Clinical Professor

Medicine/Endocrinology

Diabetes and Bone Disease

Mount Sinai School of Medicine

New York

NY

Disclosures

ZB declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Department of Medicine

University of Melbourne

Melbourne

Australia

Professor

Harold Hamm Oklahoma Diabetes Center

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Oklahoma City

OK

Disclosures

AJ has been a (non-salaried) co-investigator on multi-center clinical trials supported by Novo, Eli Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, and Medtronic. She does not hold any stocks or shares in these companies. She has received a speaker's honorarium from Novo.

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