Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Pharyngitis
  • Oesophageal candidiasis
  • Stroke
  • Muscle tension dysphagia
  • Diffuse oesophageal spasm
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux
  • Hiatal hernia
  • Post-operative cervical spine surgery

Uncommon

  • Epiglottitis
  • Retropharyngeal abscess
  • Oropharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma) and metastases
  • Zenker diverticulum
  • Cricopharyngeal bar
  • Thyromegaly (goitre)
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Oropharyngeal stenosis
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Vocal cord paralysis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Scleroderma
  • Inflammatory myopathies
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Wilson's disease
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Idiopathic achalasia
  • Nutcracker oesophagus
  • Caustic agents
  • Pill-induced injury
  • Radiation exposure
  • Oesophageal carcinoma
  • Foreign body
  • Benign oesophageal tumours (leiomyoma, lipoma, polyps)
  • Oesophageal metastases
  • Oesophageal compression
  • Schatzki ring
  • Gastroesophageal muscular ring
  • Oesophageal diverticulum
  • Eosinophilic oesophagitis
  • Oesophageal web
  • Botulism
  • Oral mucositis
  • Cervical osteophytes

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Loyola University Medical Center

Maywood

IL

Disclosures

SJC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Steven J. Charous would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael F. Vaezi and Dr Farnoosh Farrokhi, the previous contributors to this monograph. MFV and FF are authors of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Instructor in Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Director of Clinical Research

The Celiac Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics

Division of Otolaryngology

Children's National Medical Center

Assistant Professor

Otolaryngology and Pediatrics

George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Washington

DC

Disclosures

RKS declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Newcastle University

Honorary Consultant Otolaryngologist

Freeman Hospital

Newcastle-Upon-Tyne

UK

Disclosures

JW declares that she has no competing interests.

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