Often part of a multisystem disorder.
Oedema is a sign of severe or chronic disease.
A renal biopsy is the test for definitive diagnosis, although it is not required in all patients.
Treating the underlying disorder and managing HTN, hyperlipidaemia, and proteinuria is the mainstay of therapy.
Some patients may eventually need dialysis or transplant.
Glomerulonephritis (GN) denotes glomerular injury and applies to a group of diseases that are generally, but not always, characterised by inflammatory changes in the glomerular capillaries and the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The injury can involve a part or all of the glomeruli or the glomerular tuft. The inflammatory changes are mostly immune mediated.  
Internal Medicine Residency
University of Connecticut
Department of Medicine
PP declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Padmanabhan Premkumar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Priyanka Sharma and Dr Ajay Kumar, the previous contributors to this monograph. PS and AK declare that they have no competing interests.
Nephrology and Hypertension
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
MS declares that he has no competing interests.
Keele University Medical School
PN declares that he has no competing interests.
Gloucestershire Royal Hospital
RB declares that he has no competing interests.
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