Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • haematuria
  • oedema
  • hypertension

Other diagnostic factors

  • oliguria
  • anorexia
  • nausea
  • malaise
  • weight loss
  • fever
  • skin rash
  • arthralgia
  • haemoptysis
  • abdominal pain
  • sore throat
  • hypervolaemia

Risk factors

  • group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus
  • respiratory infections
  • GI infections
  • hepatitis B
  • hepatitis C
  • infective endocarditis
  • HIV
  • SLE
  • systemic vasculitis
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • lung cancer
  • colorectal cancer
  • non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • leukaemia
  • thymoma
  • haemolytic uraemic syndrome
  • drugs

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC
  • comprehensive metabolic profile
  • urinalysis
  • GFR
  • lipid profile
  • 24-hour urine collection
  • ultrasound of kidneys
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • ESR
  • complement levels
  • rheumatoid factor
  • anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)
  • anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody
  • antistreptolysin O antibody
  • antihyaluronidase
  • anti-DNase
  • anti-double-stranded DNA
  • ANA
  • cryoglobulins
  • hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B serology
  • HIV serology
  • electrophoresis
  • drug screen
  • renal biopsy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Director

Site Director

Internal Medicine Residency

University of Connecticut

Hartford Hospital

Department of Medicine

Hartford

CT

Disclosures

PP declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Padmanabhan Premkumar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Priyanka Sharma and Dr Ajay Kumar, the previous contributors to this monograph. PS and AK declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Department Chairman

Nephrology and Hypertension

Cleveland Clinic Foundation

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

Teaching Fellow

Keele University Medical School

Keele

UK

Disclosures

PN declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Nephrologist

Gloucestershire Royal Hospital

Gloucester

UK

Disclosures

RB declares that he has no competing interests.

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