Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fever ≥37.5°C
  • bleeding (gums, epistaxis, gastrointestinal, metrorrhagia)
  • petechiae
  • conjunctivitis

Other diagnostic factors

  • malaise
  • headache
  • arthralgia
  • myalgia
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea/vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • lymphadenopathy
  • neurological symptoms (e.g., confusion, ataxia, seizures)
  • sore throat
  • cough
  • prostration/coma

Risk factors

  • occupational exposure
  • exposure to relevant rodent species
  • adult males
  • contact with infected person
  • dwelling in endemic area

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • ELISA
  • FBC
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • malaria screen
  • blood culture
  • electrolytes and renal function
  • liver function
  • coagulation screen
  • lactate dehydrogenase
  • creatine phosphokinase
  • CXR
  • arterial blood gas
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Wellcome Clinical Research Training Fellow

Imperial College London

London

UK

Disclosures

NMD is funded by the Wellcome Trust to undertake a clinical PhD on Ebola virus disease.

Professor

University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston

Galveston

TX

Disclosures

TGK has grants and contracts from NIH but is not involved in drug or vaccine research relating to South American haemorrhagic fevers. He has patents in regard to Ebola, Rift Valley fever, and hantaviruses. TGK is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Research Physician

US Naval Medical Research Unit 6 (NAMRU-6)

Iquitos

Peru

Disclosures

SV declares that he has no competing interests.

Adult and Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellow

Emory University

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

VR declares that she has no competing interests.

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