Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: December  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fever ≥37.5°C
  • vesicular rash
  • oropharynx and tongue enanthem
  • lymphadenopathy

Other diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • backache
  • pharyngitis
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • delirium
  • convulsions

Risk factors

  • contact with laboratory (smallpox)
  • bioterrorism (smallpox)
  • close contact with known case (smallpox)
  • contact with monkeypox in animals or humans

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • vesicle specimen PCR
  • FBC
  • urea and electrolytes
  • LFTs
  • venous lactate
  • clotting screen
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • blood culture
  • malaria antigen test
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant in Infectious Diseases

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine

North Manchester General Hospital

Manchester

UK

Disclosures

TB is the principal investigator on an MRC/Wellcome/Newton Fund grant to make a Zika vaccine based on recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of International Public Health

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

London

UK

Disclosures

JW declares that he has no competing interests.

Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

AS declares that she has no competing interests.

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