A severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus ).
Human-to-human transmission occurs via contact with body fluids from infected patients. The incubation period after infection is 1 to 21 days (typically 5-12 days), and patients are not considered infectious until they develop symptoms.
Initial stages of infection are non-specific, which makes the differential diagnosis broad; therefore, clinical suspicion of the infection with prompt isolation is very important in the context of a history of exposure.
Management is centred around supportive care and infection control. The lack of any specific antiviral treatment or approved vaccine makes treatment difficult; however, several potential therapeutic agents are undergoing accelerated development, and clinical studies are either planned or ongoing.
Case fatality rates range from 20% to 90%. Survivors often have prolonged ill health with significant disability.
The risk of sexual transmission from male survivors may persist for at least 9 months.
As there is a high likelihood of infected people travelling, all countries should have tested and practised protocols ready for screening and managing patients.
A severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by infection by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus ). There are currently 5 known species: Zaire ebolavirus , Sudan ebolavirus , Tai Forest ebolavirus , Bundibugyo ebolavirus , and Reston ebolavirus .  The Zaire ebolavirus is responsible for the outbreak that started in West Africa in 2014, the largest outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976.
The virus is thought to be initially acquired from infected animals such as bats and non-human primates, but has potential for human-to-human transmission. Transmission occurs by close contact with body fluids of infected patients. The incubation period after infection is 1 to 21 days (typically 5-12 days) in 95% of patients,   with a mean of 11.4 days in the 2014 outbreak.  Incubation periods may be shorter in children.  Patients are not considered infectious until they develop symptoms. Human infection carries a high case fatality rate depending on the Ebola virus species and quality of supportive care available.
Ebola virus infection is part of the group of conditions known as viral haemorrhagic fevers, and was formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever.
Senior Lecturer (Honorary Consultant)
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Royal Liverpool University Hospital
NJB is an author of several references cited in this monograph. NJB is partially supported by the National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool and Public Health England. He is affiliated with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Views expressed in this monograph are those of the contributor and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health, or Public Health England.
Specialist Trainee in Infectious Diseases
Royal Liverpool University Hospital
MF declares that he has no competing interests.
Wellcome Trust/MoD Research Fellow
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
TEF is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. TEF is a consultant to the World Health Organization, and is funded by the UK Surgeon General and the Wellcome Trust.
University College London
CFH declares that she has no competing interests.
Wade Hampton Frost Professor of Epidemiology
Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, and Pathology
Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health
University of Virginia
WAP declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
UT Health Medical School
Medical Director of Epidemiology
Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center
LO-Z declares that he has no competing interests.
Consultant in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
SM declares that he has no competing interests.
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