Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Cervical cancer
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Miscarriage
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Endometritis
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Endometrial polyp
  • Cervical polyp
  • Ectropion
  • Menorrhagia
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Uncommon

  • Endometrial cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Acute leukaemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Hyperprolactinaemia
  • Renal failure
  • Hepatic failure
  • Von Willebrand disease (VWD)
  • Haemophilia
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease (choriocarcinoma)
  • Placental abruption
  • Placenta praevia
  • Cervicitis
  • Vaginitis
  • Endometriosis
  • Adenomyosis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Sexual abuse in children
  • Anticoagulant administration
  • Contraceptive-related
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Selective oestrogen receptor modulators
  • Corticosteroids
  • Androgens
  • Phenytoin
  • Chemotherapy

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Intisar Elnahhas

Research Associate

Laboratory Director

San Antonio Reproductive Associates

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

IE declares that she has no competing interests.

Mohamed Mitwally

Medical Director

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

Baptist Medical Center

San Antonio Reproductive Associates

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

The author owns a patent on the use of aromatase inhibitors for endometrial thinning before hysteroscopic surgery. The patent is licensed to Meditrina Company.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

University of Wisconsin

Madison

WI

Disclosures

SS declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant/Senior Lecturer in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

St George's Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

AU declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer