Congenital vascular lesions that enlarge with age.
Most commonly present with haemorrhage.
Diagnosis is made by brain CT or MRI and angiography.
Risk of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is reduced only by complete exclusion of the AVM from the intracranial circulation. Definitive treatment options include surgical excision and stereotactic radiosurgery. Endovascular embolisationis generally used as an adjunct.
Management decisions are made in the light of the lifetime risk of haemorrhage versus the risk of treatment.
Director of Medical Studies (Neurosurgey)
Section of Neurovascular Surgery
Departments of Neurosurgery & Diagnostic Radiology
Yale University, School of Medicine
Yale University HHT Center
Brain Aneurysm & AVM Program and Stroke Program
Yale-New Haven Hospital
CM declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Charles Matouk would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Catherine E. Gilkes and Dr Richard J. Edwards, the previous contributors to this monograph, and the additional contribution of Dr Branden Cord and Dr Ryan Hebert. CEG and RJE declare that they have no competing interests.
Professor of Neurosurgery
Department of Neurosurgery
Technical University of Munich
BM declares that he has no competing interests.
Assistant Professor of Neurology
Neurosurgery and Radiology
Rush University Medical Center
MC declares that he has no competing interests.
Stroke Center/The Neurological Institute
Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center
JHC declares that he has no competing interests.
Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer