Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • abdominal distension
  • oliguria
  • increased respiratory effort
  • hypotension

Risk factors

  • excessive fluid resuscitation (>3 L in 24 hours)
  • massive blood transfusion (>10 units in 24 hours)
  • decreased abdominal compliance
  • intra-abdominal infection/inflammation
  • haemoperitoneum
  • ileus
  • pneumoperitoneum
  • loss of abdominal domain
  • comorbid cirrhosis
  • retroperitoneal haematoma

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • trans-bladder measurement of intra-abdominal pressure
  • oxygen saturation
  • serum urea and creatinine
  • arterial blood gases
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • peak airway pressure
  • abdominal CT scan
  • abdominal ultrasound
Full details

Emerging tests

  • measurement of intra-abdominal pressure via vena cava, rectum, or abdominal cavity
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Department of Surgery

Division of Burn/Trauma/Critical Care

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

MWC declares that he has no competing interests.

Surgeon/Surgical Intensivist

Advanced Surgical Associates/Banner Health

Division of Trauma/Critical Care

Mesa

AZ

Disclosures

JCP declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael Cripps and Dr Jeffrey Perumean would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michaela West and Dr Gary An, previous contributors to this monograph. MW and GA are authors of a reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Surgical ICUs

Orlando Regional Medical Center

Orlando

FL

Disclosures

MLC is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. MLC is a member of the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

Physician/Intensivist

Fremantle Hospital

Fremantle

Western Australia

Australia

Disclosures

BDK declares that he has no competing interests.

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