Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • anticipatory anxiety and worry
  • tachycardia
  • hyperventilation
  • sweating
  • flushing
  • muscle tension

Other diagnostic factors

  • post-event processing
  • attentional biases
  • social skills deficits
  • crying, tantrums, or 'freezing'

Risk factors

  • psychiatric comorbidity (e.g., anxiety, mood, and substance-abuse disorders)
  • genetic
  • temperamental factors
  • parenting style
  • psychological disorder
  • life stressors
  • environmental factors

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • blood glucose
  • serum TSH
  • toxicology screen (urine and blood)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Craig N. Sawchuk

Associate Professor

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

CNS declares that he has no competing interests.

Jason P. Veitengruber

Assistant Professor

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

University of Washington School of Medicine

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

JPV declares that he has no competing interests.

Bunmi O. Olatunji

Associate Professor

Department of Psychological Sciences

Vanderbilt University

Nashville

TN

Disclosures

BOO declares that he has no competing interests.

Stacy Shaw Welch

Director

Anxiety and Stress Reduction Center of Seattle

University of Washington

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

SSW declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Emeritus Professor

Medical Director

Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre

McMaster University and St Joseph’s Hospital

Hamilton

Canada

Disclosures

RPS declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor

Department of Psychology

University of Arkansas

Fayetteville

AR

Disclosures

JML declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Institute of Living

Yale University

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

DFT declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Psychiatry

University of Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

DB has acted as a consultant for and held research grants from Cephalon, Eli Lilly, GSK, Lundbeck, Organon, Pfizer, Pharmacia, Roche, and Wyeth and has also acted as a consultant to Asahi, AstraZeneca, Grunenthal, Pierre Fabre, Servier, Sumitomo, and Wyeth. He has accepted paid speaking engagements in industry-supported satellite symposia and is co-author of the BAP evidence-based guidelines on the treatment of anxiety disorders. He is also a Medical Patron of Anxiety UK.

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