Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • systolic murmur left parasternal region
  • failure to thrive
  • shortness of breath

Other diagnostic factors

  • recurrent pulmonary infections
  • loud pulmonary component of the second heart sound
  • cyanosis
  • finger clubbing
  • recent myocardial infarction (usually within 2-5 days)
  • recent trauma

Risk factors

  • family history of congenital heart disease
  • Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • echocardiography
  • chest x-ray
  • ECG
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • cardiac MRI
  • cardiac catheterisation
Full details

Emerging tests

  • cardiac CT scan
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Kul Aggarwal

Professor of Clinical Medicine

University of Missouri

Columbia

MO

Disclosures

KA declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Kul Aggarwal would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Zuhdi Lababidi, a previous contributor to this monograph. ZL declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Acting Head

Department of Cardiology

Royal Children's Hospital

Melbourne

Australia

Disclosures

MC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Paediatric Cardiologist and Honorary Senior Lecturer

Great Ormond Street Hospital and Institute of Child Health

London

UK

Disclosures

SK declares that he has no competing interests.

Attending Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Medical University of South Carolina Children's Hospital

Charleston

SC

Disclosures

TYH declares that he has no competing interests.

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