Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • systolic ejection murmur
  • fixed splitting of the second heart sound

Other diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • mid-diastolic murmur
  • congestive cardiac failure
  • failure to thrive
  • symptoms of atrial arrhythmias
  • cyanosis
  • finger clubbing

Risk factors

  • female sex
  • maternal alcohol consumption
  • positive FHx

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • echocardiogram
  • ECG
  • chest x-ray
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • chest CT/MRI
  • cardiac catheterisation
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant in Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology

Interventional Cardiologist

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology

Great Ormond Street Hospital and Institute of Child Health

London

UK

Disclosures

SK declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Sachin Khambadkone would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Brandon Lane Phillips, Dr Frank Cetta, and Dr David J. Driscoll, previous contributors of this monograph. BLP, FC, and DJD declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Senior Fellow

Adult Congenital Heart Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

Department of Cardiology

Children's Hospital Boston

Department of Medicine

Division of Cardiology

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Boston

MA

Disclosures

AO declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Section of Transcatheter Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult

Rovigo General Hospital

Rovigo

Italy

Disclosures

GR declares that he has no competing interests.

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