Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration
  • Ischaemic stroke (cerebellum)
  • Ischaemic stroke (brain stem)
  • Haemorrhage in the cerebellum
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Uncommon

  • Drug-induced ataxia
  • Toxic neuropathies
  • Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
  • Sequel to hypoxic encephalopathy or heat stroke
  • Acute cerebellitis
  • HIV
  • Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome (ataxic variant)
  • Cerebellar abscess
  • Whipple's disease
  • Posterior fossa tumours
  • Craniovertebral junction anomalies
  • Paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy
  • Ataxia with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies
  • Coeliac disease
  • Myoclonus-opsoclonus syndrome
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration
  • Miller-Fisher syndrome
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Neuropathy related to monoclonal gammopathy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Vitamin B1 deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Friedreich's ataxia
  • Ataxia telangiectasia
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA 1)
  • Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 2 (AOA 2)
  • Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED)
  • Abetalipoproteinaemia
  • Autosomal-recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS)
  • Ataxia due to POLG 1 mutation
  • Ataxia due to SCYL1 mutation
  • Ataxia associated with CoQ10 deficiency
  • Ataxia associated with metabolic errors
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA 1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA 2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA 3)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 5 (SCA 5)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA 6)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA 7)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 8 (SCA 8)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 10 (SCA 10)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 11 (SCA 11)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 12 (SCA 12)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA 13)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 14 (SCA 14)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA 17)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 20 (SCA 20)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 28 (SCA 28)
  • Dentatorubral-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA)
  • Episodic ataxia type 1
  • Episodic ataxia type 2
  • Fragile-X tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS)
  • Mitochondrial cytopathy
  • Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C)

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Neurology

Ohio State University

Columbus

OH

Disclosures

BKC has been reimbursed by Medtronic for consultation and teaching in deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, the practice of DBS is not used for ataxia other than in research, and is not discussed in this article.

Dr Barbara Kelly Changizi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr S.H. Subramony and Dr Hartmut Uschmann, previous contributors to this monograph. SHS has received honoraria for lectures given from Athena Diagnostics Company. HU declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Dean of Medical Faculty

Professor and Chair of Department of Neurology

University Hospital

Bonn

Germany

Disclosures

TK declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Professor of Neurology/Director

Ataxia Center and HD Center of Excellence

UCLA

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

SLP is the co-author of 2 systematic reviews referenced in this monograph.

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