Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • shortness of breath
  • cough
  • haemoptysis
  • wheeze
  • stridor

Other diagnostic factors

  • hoarseness
  • orthopnoea
  • dysphagia
  • chest pain
  • anxiety
  • tachypnoea
  • tachycardia
  • accessory muscle use
  • cyanosis
  • crackles

Risk factors

  • lung cancer
  • primary airway malignancy
  • smoking
  • artificial airways
  • tracheobronchial stents
  • transtracheal oxygen catheters
  • lung transplantation
  • neurocognitive and neuromuscular disorders
  • relapsing polychondritis
  • granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)
  • tracheobronchomalacia
  • endobronchial infections
  • extrathoracic and distant malignancies

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • bronchoscopy (flexible and/or rigid)
  • CT chest
  • MRI of chest
  • flow-volume loops (FVL)
  • spirometry
Full details

Emerging tests

  • endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Jose Fernando Santacruz

Medical Director

Bronchoscopy & Interventional Pulmonology

Houston Methodist Lung Center

Houston Methodist Hospital

Houston

TX

Disclosures

JFS is the author of a study referenced in this monograph.

Erik Folch

Associate Director

Interventional Pulmonary

Division of Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

EF is the author of a study referenced in this monograph. EF is a consultant for Boston Scientific.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Adjunct Assistant Professor

University of Utah

Director

Pulmonary & Critical Care Research

IHC Urban South Intermountain Utah Valley Pulmonary Clinic

Provo

UT

Disclosures

KMS declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Director

Acute Medicine

Associate Medical Director

Consultant Emergency Medicine

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust

Clinical Lead and Consultant

Accident Emergency Medicine

St Thomas' Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

AP declares that he has no competing interests.

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