Last reviewed: October 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Schizophrenia
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Brief psychotic disorder
  • Schizophreniform disorder
  • Depression with psychotic features
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Delusional disorder
  • Alcohol
  • Withdrawal syndrome
  • Cocaine
  • Cannabis
  • Amfetamines
  • Phencyclidine
  • Inhalants (solvents, aerosols, gases, nitrites)
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Dementia
  • Chronic thiamine deficiency (Korsakoff's psychosis)
  • Acute hepatic porphyria

Uncommon

  • Shared psychotic disorder (folie a deux)
  • Organophosphate toxicity
  • Anticholinergics
  • Dopamine agonists
  • Other prescription or OTC medications
  • Heavy metal toxicity
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Brain tumour
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Fahr's disease
  • Encephalitis
  • HIV
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Delirium with psychosis
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Folate deficiency
  • Niacin deficiency
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Thymoma
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Lupus cerebritis
  • Wilson's disease
  • Lysosomal storage disease
  • Homocystinuria
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • DiGeorge syndrome
  • Prader-Willi syndrome

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Psychiatry

Department of Psychiatry

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

KAG declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Psychiatry

Department of Psychiatry

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

DOP has served as a consultant on antipsychotic medications for Genetech, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka and Sunovion. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill received compensation for research and consulting work by DOP from Genetech, the NIH, Research Triangle Institute, the State of North Carolina; the university has also been awarded a patent for isolation of pluripotent stem cells from human tissues, with Diana Perkins listed as one of the inventors. DOP has received royalties for the textbook, Schizophrenia, published by the American Psychiatric Association Press.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Department of Psychiatry

Institute of Psychiatry

London

UK

Disclosures

PM has been reimbursed by manufacturers of antipsychotic drugs for consultancy and speaking at conferences. PM has received grant funding for research and to support scientific conferences.

Assistant Professor of Psychiatry

Yale University School of Medicine

Connecticut Mental Health Center

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

VHS declares that he has no competing interests.

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