Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • newborn and toddler age
  • abnormal location of urethra
  • incomplete prepuce
  • penile curvature and/or torsion
  • recent genital examination or procedure
  • history of short or small penis
  • penile pain and swelling
  • foreskin adherent to glans
  • penile adhesions and smegma
  • penile cicatrix
  • penile glans oedema
  • prominent pre-pubic fat pad
  • presence of hernia or hydrocele

Other diagnostic factors

  • forced retraction of foreskin
  • dyspareunia
  • recent penile trauma
  • history of balanitis or balanoposthitis
  • urinary obstruction or retention
  • necrosis of penile skin
  • discoloration of glans
  • penile length discrepancy
  • history of UTI
  • history of pelvic or genitourinary surgery
  • erectile dysfunction

Risk factors

  • uncircumcised penis (paraphimosis)
  • indwelling urinary catheter (paraphimosis)
  • parental unawareness (phimosis)
  • balanitis xerotica obliterans (phimosis)
  • penile trauma (phimosis)
  • recurrent balanitis and balanoposthitis (phimosis)
  • low birth weight (hypospadias)
  • premature delivery (hypospadias)
  • maternal gestational diabetes, obesity, or hypertension (hypospadias)
  • family history (hypospadias, congenital penile curvature and/or torsion)
  • obesity (buried penis)
  • circumcision (trapped penis)
  • penile and lower abdominal scarring (buried penis)
  • hernia or hydrocoele (buried penis)

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Nicol Corbin Bush

Co-Director, PARC Urology

Vice-President, Operation Happenis

Frisco

TX

Disclosures

NCB declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Nicol Corbin Bush would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nicholas Cost, Dr Linda Baker, and Dr Michael Holzer, previous contributors to this monograph. NC, LB, and MH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chair

Department of Urology

The Jack Lapides Professor of Urology

University of Michigan Medical School

Ann Arbor

MI

Disclosures

DB declares that he has no competing interests.

Lecturer in Uro-oncology and Consultant Urological Surgeon

Department of Urology

Addenbrooke's Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

VG declares that he has no competing interests.

Chief

Pediatric Urology

and Professor

Urology and Pediatrics

UCSF Children's Hospital

San Francisco

CA

Disclosures

LB declares that he has no competing interests.

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