Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • recurrent disease
  • poor response to previous antibiotic therapy
  • open comedones in intertriginous (axilla, groin, perineum, or infra-mammary) areas
  • nodules or abscess
  • symmetrical distribution
  • sinus tracts with scarring

Risk factors

  • obesity
  • female sex
  • smoking
  • acne vulgaris
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • low zinc levels

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • bacterial culture
  • skin biopsy
Full details

Emerging tests

  • serum zinc
  • soluble interleukin-2 receptor
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Dermatopathologist

Southern California Permanente Medical Group

Los Angeles Medical Center

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

DC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr David Cassarino would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Robert A. Lee, the previous contributor to this monograph. RAL declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Dermatology

Penn State Hershey Medical Center

Hershey

PA

Disclosures

DRA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Clinical Dermatology

Columbia University

New York

NY

Disclosures

RU declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Dermatologist

James Cook University Hospital

Middlesbrough

UK

Disclosures

AC declares that he has no competing interests.

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