Benign vascular lesions that typically appear during the first weeks of life as blue or pink macules or patches.
First-line therapies include topical or systemic beta-blockers (such as timolol and propranolol) and systemic corticosteroids.
Adverse effects from prolonged, high-dose oral corticosteroids are common.
Infantile haemangiomas, referred to by many as simply 'haemangiomas', are benign vascular lesions. Typically they appear during the first weeks of life as blue or pink macules or patches. They subsequently enter a proliferative phase where they become elevated above the surrounding skin surfaces. This growth pattern distinguishes haemangiomas from other vascular lesions. The proliferative growth phase of most haemangiomas is completed by 9 months of age; 80% of growth is typically accomplished by the end of the fourth month. Thereafter they involute at an approximate rate of 10% per year so that, by 5 years of age, 50% of haemangiomas have completed involution. Complete resolution is possible, but in many cases cutaneous stigmata remain, with redundant fibro-fatty tissue and telangiectasias.    Congenital haemangiomas are distinct from infantile haemangiomas. These are vascular lesions that sometimes have a similar clinical appearance to infantile haemangiomas but are fully formed at birth. Specific subtypes of congenital haemangioma include rapidly involuting congenital haemangiomas (RICH) and non-involuting congenital haemangiomas (NICH). The term 'haemangioma' is sometimes used to describe acquired lesions in adults (e.g., cherry haemangioma); however, these benign lesions rarely undergo involution.
Assistant Professor of Dermatology
University of Missouri – Columbia
KLM is an investigator in clinical trials with Scioderm, Lilly, and Durata; payments were received by her institution for these trials. None of these are relevant to this topic.
Dr Kari L. Martin would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Tobian Muir, Dr Ingrid Polcari, Dr Annette Wagner, and Dr Carla T. Lee, the previous contributors to this monograph. TM, IP, and CTL declare that they have no competing interests. AW: none disclosed.
Department of Dermatology
The Hospital for Sick Children
EP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
King's College Hospital
EH declares that she has no competing interests.
Professor of Clinical Dermatology and Pediatrics
University of California San Francisco
IF is a consultant for Pierre Fabre Dermatology, which is involved in clinical trials of propranolol for hemangiomas. IF is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
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