Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: May  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • age >50 years
  • male sex
  • geographic location: sub-Saharan Africa or the Mediterranean
  • HIV infection
  • HHV-8 infection
  • immunosuppression
  • skin lesion
  • oral lesion
  • lymphadenopathy
  • lymphoedema

Other diagnostic factors

  • weight loss
  • abdominal pain
  • GI bleeding
  • diarrhoea
  • dyspnoea
  • haemoptysis
  • chest pain
  • fever

Risk factors

  • male sex
  • HIV infection
  • drug abuse
  • immunosuppression therapy
  • transplantation
  • human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection
  • central African ethnicity (Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland)
  • Jewish ethnicity
  • Mediterranean ethnicity
  • age <5 years or >50 years

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • HIV test
  • skin/mucosal biopsy
  • lymph node biopsy
  • fecal occult blood
  • CXR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • bronchoscopy
  • GI endoscopy
  • PET scan
  • FBC
  • renal function tests
  • LFTs
Full details

Emerging tests

  • human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) viraemia and serology
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Liron Pantanowitz

Professor of Pathology

Director of Cytopathology

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

LP is an author of some of the studies referenced in this monograph and has also written on Kaposi sarcoma for the following: Decision Support in Medicine; Essential Evidence Plus; Physician's Information & Education Resource; Oxford Desk Reference. He is also a consultant for Omnyx.

Bruce J. Dezube

Associate Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

BJD is an author of some studies referenced in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Attending Hematologist and Oncologist

Virginia Mason Clinical Professor of Medicine

University of Washington

Division of Hematology and Oncology

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

DA is the author of some of the studies referenced in the monograph. DA declares that he has no other competing interests.

Consultant Medical Oncologist/Senior Lecturer

Department of Medical Oncology

Imperial College/Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust

Charing Cross Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

JS declares that he has no competing interests.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Erasme University Hospital

Brussels

Belgium

Disclosures

TS declares that he has no competing interests.

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