Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • pain
  • dyspnoea

Other diagnostic factors

  • signs of impaired oxygenation
  • paradoxical chest wall motion

Risk factors

  • blunt chest trauma
  • physical abuse in children
  • osteoporosis
  • age >45 years
  • athletics
  • primary bone tumours
  • metastatic bone tumours
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
  • severe cough

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CT chest
  • ultrasound chest
  • angiography
  • CT of head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvis
  • skeletal survey (children)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Discipline of Orthopaedics & Trauma

University of Adelaide

Head of Orthopaedic Surgery

Women's and Children's Hospital

Adelaide

Australia

Disclosures

PC declares that he has no competing interests.

Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon

Women's and Children's Hospital, Modbury Hospital, Port Augusta Hospital

Senior Research Associate

Orthopaedics and Trauma

University of Adelaide

Adelaide

Australia

Disclosures

NW declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Peter Cundy and Dr Nicole Williams would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Paul Novakovich and Dr Brent Ponce, previous contributors to this monograph. PN and BP declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Orthopaedic Surgeon

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery & Orthopaedic Research Center

Academic Medical Center

Meibergdreef

Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Disclosures

GK declares that he has no competing interests.

President and Chief Executive Officer

American Board of Family Medicine

Lexington

KY

Disclosures

JP declares that he has no competing interests.

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