- May be unilateral or bilateral, painful, or asymptomatic. Male breast enlargement is benign in 99% of cases.
- Results from relative oestrogen excess or relative testosterone deficiency resulting in a high oestrogen-to-testosterone ratio.
- Physiological gynaecomastia occurs in the newborn period, during puberty, and with ageing and obesity.
- Many drugs, environmental exposures, illnesses, and some genetic conditions increase the risk for gynaecomastia.
- Most cases require no specific treatment. Therapies for persistent pain or embarrassment include anti-oestrogen therapy such as tamoxifen, androgens, or surgery (liposuction or mammoplasty).
Other related conditions
Son güncellenme: Eki 16, 2012