- A common diagnosis among infants and children; if missed, can lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and ESRD.
- Non-specific signs and symptoms may herald UTI, and practitioners should have a high index of suspicion in a febrile infant.
- An appropriately obtained urine specimen can confirm the diagnosis and pathogen; urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing will define the appropriate antibiotic for treatment.
- Of children <6 years of age with first-time UTI, 25% have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and, of those, 25% have significant VUR (grade IV or V), placing them at risk for renal scarring.
- Infection can recur in young infants and those with voiding dysfunction in the absence of urinary reflux.
Other related conditions
- Acute pyelonephritis
- Chronic pyelonephritis
- Acute cystitis
- Interstitial cystitis
- Assessment of hypertension
- Acute renal failure
- Chronic renal failure
- Urinary tract infections in women
- Urinary tract infections in men
- Acute appendicitis
- Viral gastroenteritis in children
- Kawasaki disease
- Common cutaneous drug reactions
- Assessment of fever of unknown origin
Last updated: May 23, 2013