- Clinical syndrome of reduced cardiac output, tissue hypoperfusion, increased pulmonary pressure, and tissue congestion.
- Presents with dyspnoea, decreased exercise tolerance, swelling of the legs, fatigue, and generalised weakness.
- Clinical diagnosis is supported by ancillary tests such as echocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray (CXR), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP).
- Diuretics and oxygen are initial treatments for symptom relief. Cardiogenic shock may require pressor support or mechanical ventilation.
- If acute myocardial infarction (MI) is present, early revascularisation is essential.
Other related conditions
- Chronic congestive heart failure
- ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- Assessment of cardiomyopathy
- Aortic stenosis
- Mitral regurgitation
- Pulmonary embolism
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Acute asthma exacerbation in adults
- Hypertensive emergencies
Last updated: Nov 09, 2012