Anterior shoulder dislocations account for more than 95% of shoulder dislocations and are the most common major joint dislocation.  Posterior shoulder dislocations occur in 2% to 4% of cases, and inferior (i.e., luxatio erecta) dislocations in approximately 5% of cases. The incidence of shoulder dislocations has bi-modal peaks, the first in men aged 21 to 30 years, and the second in women aged 61 to 80 years.  Studies from the US and Denmark found that the incidence rates are higher in males than in females, with an overall incidence of 11 to 17 per 100,000 population.   One study in Scotland found the incidence of posterior fracture-dislocations of the shoulder to be 0.6 per 100,000. 
In the US, fractures and fracture dislocations of the hand account for 2% to 28% of all emergency department visits. They are more likely to occur in males aged 10 to 40 years, and only two-thirds of patients present within 24 hours of the time of injury. 
In a study of young military personnel in Germany, the incidence of acute traumatic primary dislocation of the patella was estimated to be 77 per 100,000 people per year.  In adolescent populations, patellar dislocations are often associated with sports-related activities.  In the non-athletic population, women aged 10 to 17 years are more likely to have patellar dislocations. Women are also more likely to have a prior history of patellar instability and recurrent dislocation.  In addition, patients with a history of patellar instability and recurrent dislocation are more likely to have contralateral injuries. 
Studies from the US, Sweden, and Germany have shown that the annual incidence of elbow dislocations is 6 to 8 per 100,000 population.    Approximately 50% are associated with sports-related activities and 20% to 50% are associated with fractures. The incidence in males and females is equal. Most elbow dislocations (80% to 90%) are posterior or posterolateral.