Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to GI blood loss whose origin is proximal to the ligament of Treitz at the duodenojejunal junction. Acute UGIB can manifest in a variety of manners, including haematemesis, coffee-ground emesis, the return of bright red blood through a nasogastric tube, and melaena with or without haemodynamic compromise. Haematochezia (bright red blood per rectum) may occur in patients with an extremely brisk UGIB.   Causes are multiple, but in westernised countries they are usually secondary to either varices or PUD.
UGIB results in more than 300,000 hospital admissions annually in the US, with a mortality of 7% to 10%.  The annual incidence in the United Kingdom is 50 to 150 per 100,000, with the highest incidence in socio-economically deprived areas.  Ordinarily, mortality is secondary to hypovolaemic shock. Rapid evaluation, haemodynamic resuscitation, and appropriate pharmacological and endoscopic interventions are the cornerstones of therapy.