• Most commonly presents as an asymptomatic thyroid nodule detected by palpation or ultrasound in a woman in her 30s or 40s.
  • The most important diagnostic test is fine-needle aspiration.
  • Treatment is usually total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation and TSH suppression (papillary or follicular).
  • Treatment differs and must be tailored for uncommon types of thyroid cancer such as medullary, lymphoma, or anaplastic.
  • Prognosis depends on risk-group stratification.

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