- Typhoid infection is a faecal-oral transmissible disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella enterica, serotype S typhi and Salmonella enterica, serotype S paratyphi.
- It is seen in developed countries mainly among travellers returning from endemic countries.
- Highest incidence is in the Indian sub-continent and, parallel to that, among travellers returning from this area.
- Typhoid vaccine does not protect from paratyphoid infection.
- Prolonged febrile illness with normal WBC count in returnees from an endemic area should increase suspicion.
- Definitive diagnosis is by blood culture.
- Presumptive antibiotic treatment in the traveller should depend upon the country of origin.
Last updated: Sep 21, 2012