- Elevation of total cholesterol or elevation of cholesterol in circulating lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, LDL, VLDL, and intermediate-density lipoprotein. May be accompanied by a decrease in HDL.
- Usually symptomatically quiescent until significant degrees of atherosclerosis have occurred.
- Complications include MI, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, sudden death, stroke, erectile dysfunction, peripheral vascular disease, and acute limb ischaemia.
- Risk factors for secondary hypercholesterolaemia in industrialised populations include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet characterised by the excessive consumption of saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, and cholesterol. Other causes include diabetes, excess body weight mainly in abdominal region, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, and cholestatic liver disease. Low HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with smoking and abdominal obesity.
- Diagnosed by fasting lipid profile, consisting of measurements of total cholesterol, LDL (estimated or direct), HDL, and triglycerides.
- Treated with lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and exercise, as well as pharmacological intervention with statin therapy, nicotinic acid, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors (ezetimibe).
Other related conditions
- Transient ischaemic attack
- Stable ischaemic heart disease
- Obesity in adults
- Metabolic syndrome
- Diabetic cardiovascular disease
- Assessment of chest pain
- ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- Unstable angina
- Overview of stroke
- Peripheral vascular disease
- Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Last updated: Jan 18, 2013