- Acute onset of severe joint pain.
- Swelling, effusion, warmth, erythema, and/or tenderness of the involved joint(s).
- Arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis shows strongly negative birefringent needle-shaped crystals under polarised light.
- NSAIDs, colchicine, or corticosteroids are used to treat acute disease.
- Allopurinol, febuxostat, or probenecid are used as uric acid-lowering drugs when long-term prevention of crystal deposition is indicated.
- Complications include joint destruction, kidney disease, and urolithiasis.
Last updated: Apr 29, 2013